Rock Mechanics Properties of Typical Foundation Rock Types Summarizing physical and mechanical tests of rock samples from several types of foundation sites 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 WORK UNIT NO 14 SPONSORING AGENCY CODE Engineering and Research Center Bureau of Reclamation Denver Colorado 80225 12

ROCK PHYSICS BASICS Need for Static Moduli 2c 2b S Hmin P b 2c 1 − ν2 E P − SH min Importance of Static Young s Modulus and Poisson s Ratio for Hydrofracture Design Static moduli are often used in wellbore stability and in situ stress applications to evaluate the possibility of breakouts elevated pore pressure and tectonic stress

Calculate Bulk Modulus from Youngs Modulus and Poisson s Ratio Typical Values of Some Materials See Also Summary The bulk modulus measures a substance s elastic resistance to change in volume when under uniform loading in all directions It can be thought of as an extension of the Youngs Modulus into three dimensions The formula for

elastic modulus or Young s modulus and shear modulus are used when deformations in underground mines need to be computed Experimentally the elastic modulus can be determined from the stress–strain response of a rock sample subjected to uniaxial compression However this is a complicated and time consuming experiment very

methods for solving initial boundary value problems and iv solution and discussion of some the typical dimension of the pores or rock grains yet small enough to allow the introduction the drained bulk modulus K the undrained bulk modulus K u andtheBiotcoeﬃcient α Correspondences be

Figure 5 13 Schematic of stabilometer test setup for measuring R value Yoder and Witczak 1975 5 4 3 Elastic Resilient Modulus Pavement thickness design prior to the 1986 AASHTO Design Guide was based on experience soil classification and the plastic response of pavement materials to static load e g Marshall stability for asphalt concrete and CBR for unbound materials

Fig 9 4 Das 1984 provides I ρ values for a variety of situations The Young s modulus E of the soil should be determined by appropriate laboratory or field tests In the absence of such test data Table 9 1 may be used as a rough guide TABLE 9 1 TYPICAL YOUNG S MODULI FOR SOILS Material Young s Modulus E MPa Rock 2 000 20 000

Rock physics studies the relationship between physical and elastic properties of rocks and is the basis of quantitative seismic interpretation It has arguably given exploration geophysicists a solid quantitative basis to their interpretation of seismic data It can be tackled at different scales of investigation by people with various backgrounds from geophysicists to civil engineers from

where kdry is the dry frame bulk modulus kmatrix is the matrix grain bulk modulus kfl is the bulk modulus of the pore fluid and φis porosity Because fluids do not support shearing stress we have μsat dry μ 3 The density of the saturated rock is obtained by applying mass conservation principles on the elemental constituents of

Bulk modulus The bulk modulus of a material is then defined as the ratio of applied pressure to volumetric strain 9 Bulk modulus is equivalent to the inverse of compressibility β Shear modulus In a similar way shear modulus μ often G in many publications can be defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain

Variations in rock mass elastic modulus are qualitatively similar values vary from 1 to 2 GPa up to the elastic modulus of the intact rock 40 GPa Our study highlights that macrofractures and joints reduce rock mass strength and should be considered when assessing the rock mass for well stability and rock mass deformation due to stress

Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock 5 1 Overview The purpose of this chapter is to identify either by reference or explicitly herein appropriate methods of soil and rock property assessment and how to use that soil and rock property data to establish the final soil and rock parameters to be used for geotechnical design

POROSITY AND BULK DENSITY OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS By G EDWARD MANGER ABSTRACT More than 900 items of porosity and bulk density data for sedimentary rocks have been tabulated Most of the data are from the more accessible American British German and Swiss literature The number of porosity determinations per item ranges from 1 to 2 109

Nov 05 2017 · Gases have a high compressibility factor and a low bulk modulus value for example This video contains 1 practice problem on bulk modulus and fluid mechanics with all

The values in Table 2 are the effective bulk modulus for several air oil mixtures These were determined by test as described below Using these test results a convenient empirical equation was developed to predict without tests the effective bulk modulii of other air oil mixtures

Meanwhile the shear modulus G and bulk modulus K are related to Young s modulus and Poisson s ratio through 2 1 ν E G 2 4 3 1−2ν E K 2 5 Their values for some typical rocks are listed in Table 1 TABLE 1 Laboratory Mechanical Properties of Rocks Lama and Vutukuri 1978 Rock Location Description ρ g cm3 E GPa G

modulus and stiffness are defined to represent typical stress – strain behaviours of intact roc k and rock joints The behavior of the disc ontinuities is usually defined in the form of norm

Bulk modulus is the measure of the decrease in volume with an increase in pressure The modulus of elasticity of a liquid varies widely depending on the specific gravity and temperature of the liquid Typical values are less than 30 000 psi to greater than 300 000 psi depending upon the liquid Pipe containing liquid has an ability to

The effect of Poisson s ratio is one of the parameters used for the calculation of modulus value in an in situ test Sharma and Singh 1989 found that it is not much variation in the values of the deformation modulus if the value of the Poisson s ratio is between 0 1 and 0 35

Intact Limestone can have a Young s modulus E ranging from 9 GPa 80 GPa A B Poisson s ratio v for intact specimens varies from between 0 2 0 3 B Bulk modulus K derived from the above

The values of E BS from the base layers in the original AASHO Road Test are summarized in Table 5 40 Note that the E BS values are not only functions of moisture but also of stress state θ which in turn is a function of the pavement structure i e subgrade modulus and thickness of the surface layer Typical values of θ recommended in the 1993 AASHTO Guide for use in base design are

The composite rock fluid compressional bulk modulus is 4 Kc Kp Kb 4 3 N Compressional and shear velocity or travel time depend on density and on the elastic properties so we need a density value that reflects the actual composition of the rock fluid mixture

Regression analyses were applied to define relations among these parameters and the range of values of modulus ratio MR is estimated for each rock type Discover the world s research 17 million

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Which One Should be Used By Wayne W Walker P E F ACI and Jerry A Holland P E F ACI The modulus of subgrade reaction is an often misunderstood and misused concept for the thickness design of slabs on ground Terzaghi in 1955 Ref 1 P 300 attributed this confusion to the initial work by Hayashi in

The Poisson s ratio of a stable isotropic linear elastic material must be between −1 0 and 0 5 because of the requirement for Young s modulus the shear modulus and bulk modulus to have positive values Most materials have Poisson s ratio values ranging between 0 0 and 0 5

The elastic modulus of soil also referred to as soil modulus or Young s modulus is a soil characteristic that measures how much it can be stretched or squeezed and must be taken into account particularly in construction engineering and landscaping projects Several factors influence soil

Mar 31 2020 · Rock in geology naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is composed and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation These classes are 1 igneous rocks which have

Bulk modulus The bulk modulus K displaystyle K or B displaystyle B of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compression that substance is It is defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal pressure increase to the resulting relative decrease of the volume

6 Schneider et al Several expressions have been proposed for estimating the maximum shear modulus Gmax as a function of void ratio e OCR and confining pressure σ c The following normalized empirical equation to evaluate Gmax at low−amplitude shear strains can be determined from the work of Hardin and Drnevich 1972